#Sineguelas fruits – contains carotene, B-complex vitamins and several important amino acids. Rich in vitamin C, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, iron. High in antioxidants, which help rid the body of free radicals.

Spondias purpurea is a species in flowering plant in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae, that is native to tropical regions of the Americas and can be found from Mexico to Brazil.  It is also very common in most of the Caribbean Islands.  It is most commonly known as jocote, which derives from the Nahuatl word xocotl, meaning any kind of sour or acidic fruit.  It is a popular fruit throughout Central America particularly in El Salvador, Nicaragua and in Costa Rica.  However, this fruit can be particularly sweet when it ripens long enough.  Other common names include red mombin, plum, purple mombin, hog plum, ciruela huesito (Venezuela), ciruela, ciruela traqueadora (Panama), ciriguela, ciriguelq, cirguela, cirguelo (Ecuador), and siniguelas (Philippines).

The thin skin has a waxy apperance and is edible.  The pulp is yellow when ripe and sweet.  In the center of the fruit is a large pit, or stone, which is inedible.  The flavor of a sineguelas fruts is said to be similar to a plum, sweet with a bit of an acidic aftertaste. Sineguelas fruit is available in the fall and winter months.  Sineguelas fruit are rich in vitamin C and carbohydrates. They are a source of calcium, phosphorus, iron and a small amount of fiber.  They contain carotene, B-complex vitamins, and several important amino acids.  Sineguelas are high in antioxidants, which help rid the body of free radicals.
Fruit of Spondias purpurea
Sineguelas from the Philippines

Allergenic urushiol is present in the sap of the tree and in small concentrations of the fruit peel and can trigger contact dermatitis (allergic rash) is sensitized individuals.  This reactions is more likely to occur in people who have been exposed to other plants from the family Anacardiaceae such as poison oak and poison ivy, which are widespread in the United States.  In Florida growth is relegated to near-tropical areas of the state, and the tree is killed or greatly harmed by cold winter temperatures from Palm Beach Country northward.

This Sinuegalas fruit, has a lot of health benefits than we have ever imagined! it is rich in antioxidants and vitamin C.  It is known as the “food of the Gods”  in the Philippines which usually taste sweet when ripe.

With all the drugs manufactured all over the world to treat the millions of diseases discovered every day, it has become one of the most fluorishing businesses.  However, not all of them are effective and they cost a fortune! With this, it is sometimes more practical and wise to rely on the wonders of nature.

STUDIES

● Many compilation list Spondias purpurea (sineguelas) ans Spondias mombin (hevi) separately; some compilations list them as synonyms. There is also an overlap for synonyms and common names on both species. Red mombin is applied to Spondias purpurea and yellow mombin to spondias mombin.

● Until resolved, it was concluded the studies for Spondias mombin (sineguelas).

Antimicrobial / Anti-Enterobacterial: in a study of 84 plants screened for in vitro activity against five enterobacteria pathogenic to man, Sineguelas was one ten plants that showed the best antibacterial activity provides scientific basis for use in enterobacterial infection in man.

● Polysaccharide Gum – Study of S. purpurea var. lutea polysaccharide gum yielded 3-0- and 6-0- galactosyl residues, terminal and 3-0za-l- arabinofuranosyl, terminal rhamnosyl residues and uronic acids, represented bt ß-d-glucuronic acid and its 4-0- methel derivative.

Gum / Pharmaceutical Binding: Study showed the S. purpurea bark gum has binding abilities which can be employed when high mechanical strength and fast to moderate release is required.

Antioxidant / Pharmaceutical Binding: Study evaluated five tropical Brazilian fruits for antioxidant activity using four different assays. All results showed high antioxidant properties for siriguela (S. purpurea).

Mutagenic Potential: Study evaluated the mutagenic potential of S. purpurea through the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of mice in vivo. Results showed no mutagenicity.

Antinociceptive Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vivo effects of leaf extracts of S. mombin on reproductive performance of female rats. Results showed antinociceptive activity, but no abortifacient or estrogenic activity.

Anxiolytic Activity: Study evaluated the anxiolytic properties of various extracts of Spondias mombin leaves using aggressive behavior response and depression-related swimming behavior activities. All test extracts abolished aggressive attacks in rats and reduced swimming time in mice. Results suggest an anxiolytic effect mediated by GABAergic transmission.

● Lipid Lowering Effect /Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves on the serum profile of rabbits. Results showed significant reduction of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDal.

Male Antifertility Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of Spondias mombin leaf on male rats for antifertility effect. There were histomorphological changes in the testis with significant reduction of serum testosterone. Result suggest potential sterility through suppression of spermatogenesis.

Haematinic Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated that haematinic potential of an ethanol extract of Spondias mombin in female Wistar rats. The extract significantly increased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume. Results collaborates it traditional use as a haematinic.

● Uterine Smooth Muscle Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic crude and neutral leaf extracts of S. mombin on serum estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on albino rabbits and compared with oxytocin. In vivo studies showed the crude extract caused more prolonged muscle contraction, unlike the more forceful effect with oxytocin. While oxytocin synergistically enhances estrogen activity, the extract mechanism of action was apparently dependent on competitive binding to estrogen receptor sites.

Phytochemical and Nutrient Evaluation / Leaves:

~ Phytochemical and Nutrient – evaluation of S. mombin leaves yielded the presence of bioactive compounds Tannins 3.82%, Saponins 7.60%, Flavonoids 3.00%, alkaloids 6.00% and phenols 1.00%.

~ Vitamin analysis yielded ascorbic acid 19.35mg 100-1g, Niacin 3.75 mg 1p0-1g Riboflavin 0.25 mg 100-1g and thiamine 0.05 mg 100-1 g.

~ Mineral analysis yielded K 2.55%, mg 0.3045%. Na 0. 100%, Ca, 1.310% and P, 0.200%.

■  OTHER HEALTH BENEFITS:

●  Antioxidant Protection

~  Since it is very rich in antioxidants, it can neutralize disease-causing oxygen radicals that can build up inside the body.  These radicals are what causes cancer and also destroy internal organs.

●  Controlling Cholesterol

~  It has high levels of vitamin C which prevents oxidized cholesterol from building up in the walls of arteries.  This can prevent arthrosclerosis, asthma, osteoarthritis, colon  cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis which are caused by cholesterol.

Peel of jocote fruits yielded phenolic acid, and several flavonol O-glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide and rhamnetin.

●  Improved Iron Absorption

~  It is one of the fruits which can improve the ability of the body in absorbing iron from the food we eat.

●  Rich in Nutrients

~  Since it belongs to the family of plums, it is rich in vitamin A, beta carotene, potassium, and dietary fiber!

●  Prevent Macular Degeneration

~  According to studies, three serving of plums regularly can actually lower the risk of macular degeneration brought about by aging.

Properties –  Fruit is astringent; considered diuretic and antispasmodic.  *Shoot are astringent.  *Seeds considered toxic.

  Constituents

●  Mineral content and food values are:

¤  Moisture:  75.6-85.44%

¤  Ash:   0.57-0.9%

¤  Phosphorus:  0.11%

¤  Calcium:  0.01%

¤  Iron:  0.003%

¤  Proteins:  0.63%

¤  Fats:  0.09%

¤  Carbohydrates:  21.16%

¤  Crude fiber:  0.62%

Study of amino acid composition of the gum yielded hydroxyproline (main AA), aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, proline, threonine, and alanine.

■  USES / EDIBILITY

●  Fruit has a thin skin and a large seed, sorrounded by a soft, sweet, aromatic, and juicy pulp when fully ripe.  Although much eaten, it is not considered a high-quality fruit, with a tendency to cause stomachaches when eaten semi-ripe in large quantities.

●  Also used as seasoning for sweets and pickling.

●  In the Ecuadorian coastal plain and Andes, processedninto marmalade, wine, liquor.

■  FOLKLORIC

●  Decoction of the bark used for dysentery and infantile tympanites.

●  Sap of the bark is applied to the infants mouth for stomatitis (dapulak)

●  Fruits is astringent and useful in diarrhea.

●  In Brazil, decoction of bark used for diarrhea; decoction of flowers and leaves used for constipation and stomach aches.  Decoction of the fruits used for diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea.

●  The Tikunas Indians of the Amazon – Use the decoction of bark for pain and excessive menstrual bleeding, for stomach pains and diarrhea, and for washing wounds.

●  Cubans used the fruit as emetic.

●  Dominicans use it as laxative.

●  Bark used for minor skin ulcers.

●  Haiti, leaf juice taken orally for swollen glands and trauma.  Crushed leaves applied for headaches.  Fruit consumed in large amounts for constipation.  Also used for diarrhea and dysentery .  Fruit syrup used for angina.

●  Fruit decoction used to bathe wounds.

●  Juice of fresh leaves used for thrush.

●  Decoction of leaves and bark used as febrifuge.

●  Crushed leaves applied as head bath for headaches.

●  In the Guianas fruit used as ingredient in marmalade laxative; shoots as astringent.

● In Nigeria, infusion of shredded leaves used to wash wounds, cuts, sores and burns.

● In Jamaica, leaves are boiled to make a cold remedy; also used for sore gums, diarrhea and dysentery. In Maya medicine, plant used to make baths for skin diseases.

● Resin of tree used with pineapple and soursop for jaundice.

Amazonian Indians use a daily cup of decoction for permanent sterility.

● In Peru, leaf and bark decoctions used to aid delivery.

● In Guatemala, used for gastrointestinal disorders.

OTHERS

Stains: Fruit used to remove stains from clothing and for washing hands.

● In French Guiana, shoots are considered astringent. Fruit used as ingredient in laxative marmalade. Seed considered toxic.

Veterinary: In Eastern Nigeria, fresh leaves of sineguelas used to aid delivery and expel the placenta in small ruminants.

References:  medium.com / wikipedia /stuartxchange.org

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