MUSHROOM, AGARICUS BISPORUS / AGARICACEAE
The culture of mushrooms began in France towards 1650. At present, this country occupies the fourth place of the world-wide production. Approximately 2,380.000t of mushrooms are produced world-wide every year and the leading country is China.
In Spain 85,000t are produced every year, chiefly in La Rioja and Cuenca-Albacete.
Most of the mushrooms already existed in the old times and they are previous to the presence of men. However, the culture of mushrooms began in France towards 1650, when some market gardeners observed the development edible fungi when covering the mount’s dung with sand. In Spain the production began in 1952.
In Europe, the first cultivated fungi, the mushroom, was introduced in the 17th century. Mushrooms were introduced into the Netherlands for the first time at the beginning of the 19th century, but it was not be until after the 1900s that they were cultivated on large-scale in the marl mine in Limburg.
A mushrooms is the reproductive structure produced by some fungi. It is somewhat like the fruit of plant, except that the “seeds” it produces are in fact millions of microscopic spores that form in the gills or pores underneath the mushroom’s cap.
Mushroon are fungi. They belong in a kingdom of their own, separate from plants and animals in the way they obtain their nutrients. Generally, plants make their food using the sun’s energy (photosynthesis), their mycelium grows into or around the food source, secrets enzymes that digest the food externally, and the mycelium then absorbs the digested nutrients.
HEALTH BENEFITS OF MUSHROOMS
Mushrooms, contain protein, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. These can have various health benefits.
Among the antioxidant agents in mushroom are:
. Selenium – mushrooms are fungi that contain many nutrients, including vitamin D, iron, and about 12 mcg of selenium in a 100-gram serving
. Vitamin C – there is 3.5 mg amount of Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid in 100g, grams portion amount of Mushroom, Shiitake, dried
. Choline – the choline in mushrooms can help with muscle movement, learning and memory. Choline assist in maintaining the structure of cellular membranes and plays a role in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Mushrooms are also the only vegan, nonfortified dietary source of vitamin D.
Several other minerals that may be difficult to obtain from a vegan diet – such as selenium, potassium, copper, iron, and phosphorus – are available in mushrooms.
The antioxidant content in mushrooms may help prevent lung, prostate, breast, and other types of cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. Some sources have suggested that selenium may help prevent cancer.
Mushrooms also contain a small amount of vitamin D. There is some evidence that vitamin D supplementation may help prevent or treat some kinds of cancer, though according to a 2018 report, the effect may vary from person to person.
Choline is another antioxidant in mushrooms. Some studies have suggested that consuming choline can reduce the risk of some types of cancer, but at least one other study has indicated that it may increase the risk of prostate cancer. It is worth noting that consuming a nutrient as supplement is not the same as consuming in the diet.
Dietary fiber may help manage a number of health conditions, including type 2 diabetes. A 2018 review of meta-analyses concluded that people who eat a lot of fiber may have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. For those who already have it, fiber may help reduce blood glucose levels.
A cup of sliced, raw mushrooms, weighing 70 grams (g), provides almost 1 g of fiber. A dietary Guidelines for American recommended that adults consume 22.4-33.6 g of dietary fiber each day, depending on sex and age. Mushrooms, beans, some vegetables, brown rice, and whole grain foods can all contribute to a person’s daily requirement of fiber.
The fiber, potassium, and vitamin C in mushrooms may contribute to cardiovascular health. Potassium can help regulate blood pressure, and this may decrease the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend reducing the intake of added salt in the diet and eating more foods that contain potassium. According to current guidelines, people should consume around 4,700 milligrams (mg) of potassium each day. Mushroom appear on the AHA’s list of foods that provide potassium.
A 2016 study concluded that people with a vitamin C deficiency were more likely to experience cardiovascular disease and suggested that consuming vitamin C may help prevent this illness. They did not find evidence that Vitamin C supplements can reduce the risk of this type of disease. There is some evidence that consuming a type of fiber called beta-glucans may lower blood cholesterol levels. Beta-glucans occur in the cell walls of many types of mushrooms.
The Mediterranean diet includes a range of plant foods, such as mushroom
Many women take folic acid, or folate, supplements during pregnancy to boost fetal health, but mushrooms can also provide folate. A cup of whole, raw mushrooms contains 16.3 micrograms (mcg) of folate. Current guidelines recommend that adults consume 400 mcg of folate each day can also provide.
MUSHROOMS CAN PROTECT YOUR BRAIN AS YOUR AGE
Those two aforementioned antioxidants (ergothioneine and glutathione) may also help prevent Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, the Penn State researchers say. They recommend eating five button mushrooms per day to reduce your risk of neurological illness in the future. Cook the mushrooms to best preserve their nutritional benefits, either by microwaving or grilling.
Eating mushrooms may be good for your brain. A study found that older men and women who ate mushrooms as part of their regular diet were at lower risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, or MCI, a brain condition that is often a precursor to Alzheimer’s disease and other form of dementia
MUSHROOM MAY HELP KEEP YOU YOUNG
Mushrooms contain a super-high concentration of two antioxidants, ergothioneine and glutathione, according to a 2017 Penn State study. When these antioxidants are present together, they work extra-hard to protect the body from the physiological stress that causes visible sign of aging.
MUSHROOMS MAY BOOST YOUR MEMORY
Eating mushrooms more than twice a week could prevent memory and language problems occuring in the over-60s, research from Singapore suggest. A unique antioxidant present in mushrooms could have a protective effect on the brain, the study found.
MUSHROOMS HELP HEART HEALTH
Great for the heart – Mushrooms, keep the heart healthy in several ways, according to Dr Brewer and Ms. Kellow. They explain: “They contain substances that act as anti-inflammatories, and they are rich in antioxidants that protect blood vessels,” Studies also shows that mushrooms can lower total and LDL (bad) cholesterol.
MUSHROOMS CAN ASSIST STRENGTHENING YOUR BONES
Mushrooms are the only natural plants source of vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to build strong bones, yet very few foods contain this important nutrient. The vitamin D levels of mushrooms vary depending on how the’re grown.
MUSHROOMS WILL HELP GIVE YOU ENERGY
Mushrooms are rich in B vitamins: riboflavin [B2], folate [B9], thiamine [B1], pantothenic acid [B5], and niacin [B3]. These help the body utilize energy from the food we consume and produce red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.
NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS OF MUSHROOMS
The best of Mushrooms in our health are: fat-free, low-sodium, low-calorie, and cholesterol-free. They also packed with fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Nutritional benefits vary depending on the type of mushroom. But overall, they are a good source of the following nutrients.
Potassium is extremely important when it comes to heart, muscle, and nerve function. There’s about as much potassium in 2/3 cup of cooked mushrooms.
Mushrooms High in Potassium (% DV per cup)
Crimini (11% DV), Portable (9%),
Chantarelle (8%), Morel (8%), and
Copper helps your body make red blood cells, which are used to deliver oxygen all over the body. The mineral is also important to other processes in the body, like maintaining healthy bones and nerves. Even after being cooked, a 1 cup serving of mushrooms can provide about one-third of the daily recommended amount of copper.
The median value of Copper is found in Mushrooms, white, microwaved which in 100 g contains 0.37 mg of Copper.
Copper in Mushrooms
Mushrooms, maitake, raw – Copper 0.252mg
Mushrooms, oyster, raw – Copper 0.244 mg
Mushrooms, canned, drained solids, Copper 0.235 mg
Mushrooms, shiitake, stir-fried- Copper 0.163 mg
Mushrooms are rich in the B vitamins: riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid. The combination help protect heart health. Riboflavin is good for red bloods cells. Niacin is good for the digestive system and for maintaining healthy skin. Pantothenic acid is good for the nervous system and helps the body make the hormones it needs. B vitamins help the body get energy from food and form red blood cells. A number of B vitamins also appear to be important for a healthy brain.
Mushrooms are rich in B vitamins such as:
. riboflavin, or B-2
. folate, or B-9
. thiamin, or B-1
. pantothenic acid, or B-5
. niacin, or B-3
Beta glucan is a form of soluble dietary fiber that’s been strongly linked to improving cholesterol and boosting heart health. It can also help your body regulate blood sugar, reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Oyster and shiitake mushrooms are believed to have the most effective beta glucan.
Mushrooms are known for their immune-modulating and anti-tumour properties. The polysaccharide fraction, mainly beta-glucans, is responsible for the immune-modulating effects. Fungal beta-glucans have been shown to active leukocytes, which depend on structural characteristics of beta-glicans.
Antioxidants help protect the body from damaging free radicals that can cause conditions like heart disease and cancer. They also protect you against damge from aging and boost your immune sytem. Mushrooms are rich in the antioxidant called selenium. In fact, they are the best source of the mineral in the produce aisle.